How Africa Gets Robbed Of Billions Each Year

Africa is not poor, we are stealing its wealth
Mapping Africaโ€™s natural resources [Photo Credit: Al Jazeera]

Africa is poor, but we can try to help its people. Itโ€™s a simple statement, repeated through a thousand images, newspaper stories, and charity appeals each year. So that it takes on the weight of truth. When we read it, we reinforce assumptions and stories about Africa that weโ€™ve heard throughout our lives. We reconfirm our image of Africa.

Try something different. Africa is rich, but we steal its wealth.

Thatโ€™s the essence of a report (pdf) from several campaign groups released today. Based on a set of new figures, it finds that sub-Saharan Africa is a net creditor to the rest of the world to the tune of more than $41bn. Sure, thereโ€™s the money going in: around $161bn a year in the form of loans, remittances (those working outside Africa and sending money back home), and aid.

But thereโ€™s also $203bn leaving the continent. Some of this is direct, such as $68bn in mainly dodged taxes. Essentially multinational corporations โ€œstealโ€ย much of this โ€“ legally โ€“ by pretending they are really generating their wealth in tax havens. These so-called โ€œillicit financial flowsโ€ย amount to around 6.1 percent of the continentโ€™s entire gross domestic product (GDP) โ€“ orย three times what Africa receives in aid.

Then thereโ€™s the $30bn that these corporations โ€œrepatriateโ€ย โ€“ profits they make in Africa but send back to their home country, or elsewhere, to enjoy their wealth. The City of London is awash with profits extracted from the land and labour of Africa.

Indirect means the west rob the continent

There are also more indirect means by which we pull wealth out of Africa. Todayโ€™s report estimates that $29bn a year is being stolen from Africa in illegal logging, fishing and trade in wildlife. $36bn is owed to Africa as a result of the damage that climate change will cause to their societies and economies as they are unable to use fossil fuels to develop in the way that Europe did. Our climate crisis was not caused by Africa, but Africans will feel the effect more than most others. Needless to say, the funds are not currently forthcoming.

[bctt tweet=โ€If African countries are to benefit from foreign investment, they must be allowed to โ€“ even helped to โ€“ legally regulate that investment and the corporations that often bring it.โ€ username=โ€africanvibesโ€]

In fact, even this assessment is enormously generous, because it assumes that all of the wealth flowing into Africa is benefitting the people of that continent. But loans to governments and the private sector (at more than $50bn) can turn into unpayable and odious debt.

Ghana is losing 30 per cent of its government revenue to debt repayments, paying loans which were often made speculatively, based on high commodity prices, and carrying whopping rates of interest. One particularly odious aluminium smelter in Mozambique, built with loans and aid money, is currently costing the country $30 for every $1 that the Mozambique government received.

How Africa Gets Robbed

A 2014 estimate suggests that rich Africans were holding a massive $500bn in tax havens. Africaโ€™s people are effectively robbed of wealth by an economy that enables a tiny minority of Africans to get rich by allowing wealth toย flow out of Africa.

British aid, which is used to set up private schools and health centres, can undermine the creation of decent public services, which is why such private schools are being closed down in Uganda and Kenya.ย Of course, some Africans have benefitted from this economy. There areย now around 165,000 very rich Africans, with combined holdings of $860bn.

But, given the way the economy works, where do these people mainly keep their wealth?

In tax havens.

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