The Liptako-Gourma Charter: An Unexpected Alliance Of 3 African Military Regimes


In the heart of West Africa, a new alliance emerges, casting a ray of hope across the Sahel region. The Liptako-Gourma Charter, a defense pact signed by the leaders of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, has become a focal point of international attention. But to truly grasp its significance, one must journey back to the roots of the Sahel’s tumultuous history.

The Sahel: A Tapestry of Cultures and Conflicts

The Sahel, a vast stretch of land bordering the Sahara Desert, has been a melting pot of cultures, religions, and ethnicities for centuries. From ancient trade routes to colonial legacies, the region has seen empires rise and fall. However, in recent decades, it has been plagued by a myriad of challenges, from climate change-induced droughts to extremist insurgencies.

Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, often referred to as the Liptako-Gourma region, have been at the epicenter of these challenges. The rise of extremist groups, coupled with local grievances and inter-communal conflicts, has destabilized the region. The international community, despite numerous interventions, has struggled to restore peace.

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Betting On A United Front

Amidst this backdrop, the leaders of these three nations, Assimi Goïta of Mali, Ibrahim Traoré of Burkina Faso and Abdourahamane Tchiani of Niger recognized the need for a united front. Individual efforts to combat extremism and stabilize their territories were proving insufficient. The realization that their destinies were intertwined led to discussions, negotiations, and finally, the birth of the Liptako-Gourma Charter.

The Charter, which establishes the Alliance of Sahel States (AES), is not just a military pact. It represents a shared vision for the future—a commitment to collective defense, economic cooperation, and cultural exchange. The announcement of the Charter on ‘X’, the social network formerly known as Twitter, by Mali’s junta leader Assimi Goita, underscores the importance of modern communication in rallying support for such initiatives.

Moving Away From Old Ties

For decades, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger have shared a bond with France, rooted in colonial history and mutual security concerns. But the sands of this relationship have shifted dramatically in recent times, particularly following a series of military coups that rocked all three nations.

The G5 Sahel alliance, backed by France and including Chad and Mauritania, was formed in 2017. Its primary mission was to combat extremist factions like al-Qaeda and ISIL. However, the political upheavals from 2020 onwards strained this alliance. The fallout led to France pulling its troops from Mali and Burkina Faso and entering a strained phase with Niger’s emergent military regime.

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Once seen as a bulwark against extremism, France’s military role in the Sahel has now become a topic of contention. Allegations of neocolonial tendencies, combined with discontent over military outcomes and civilian harm, have tainted its image in the region. As these Sahelian nations chart their own paths, seeking greater autonomy and forging new partnerships, their ties with France are being redefined in this evolving geopolitical narrative.

By coming together, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger are sending a clear message: unity is their strongest weapon against adversity. However, the road ahead is not without challenges. The success of the AES will depend on its ability to address not just security concerns but also the root causes of instability—poverty, lack of education, and limited access to resources. Moreover, the international community’s role in supporting this alliance, both diplomatically and financially, will be crucial.

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The International Perspective

The international community has long been involved in the Sahel, with various nations and organizations pouring resources into peacekeeping missions, humanitarian aid, and development projects. The formation of the Alliance of Sahel States (AES) under the Liptako-Gourma Charter has been met with a mix of optimism and caution.

The United Nations, which has its peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA, in Mali, sees the Charter as a positive step towards regional ownership of security and development issues. However, there are concerns about how the AES will coordinate with existing international efforts and whether it might lead to overlapping mandates.

The European Union and the United States, both significant donors in the region, have expressed cautious optimism. They recognize the potential of a united front but are keen to ensure that human rights and democratic values are upheld. The recent political upheavals, especially in Mali, have raised concerns about the direction in which these nations are headed.

Challenges and Opportunities

The Liptako-Gourma Charter, while a symbol of unity, also brings to the fore the immense challenges the region faces. The Sahel is one of the world’s most vulnerable regions to climate change. Desertification, erratic rainfall, and dwindling resources have exacerbated existing tensions, often giving rise to conflicts over scarce resources.

The AES will need to prioritize environmental and climate resilience strategies. Investing in sustainable agriculture, water conservation, and renewable energy can not only address environmental challenges but also create jobs and reduce the allure of extremist groups.

Another significant challenge is the trust deficit among communities. Years of conflict have sown deep-seated mistrust. The AES will need to embark on community-driven reconciliation processes, ensuring that justice is served and grievances are addressed.

However, the Charter also presents immense opportunities. By pooling resources, the three nations can invest in cross-border infrastructure projects, enhancing connectivity and trade. The rich cultural tapestry of the Sahel can be leveraged to boost tourism, showcasing the region’s heritage to the world.

The Voices of the Sahel

Beyond the political corridors and international boardrooms, the true essence of the Sahel lies in its people. From the bustling markets of Niamey to the ancient mud-brick city of Timbuktu, the Sahel pulsates with stories of resilience, hope, and dreams.

Aïcha, a schoolteacher from Burkina Faso, sees the Charter as a promise to her students. “For too long, our children have grown up in the shadows of conflict. The Alliance gives us hope that they will see a future where education and opportunities, not guns and violence, define their lives,” she says.

In Niger, Oumar, a farmer, speaks of the changing climate and its impact. “The rains are unpredictable, and our crops suffer. But with the three nations coming together, I hope we can find solutions, share knowledge, and help each other,” he reflects.

Others have shared their reactions on social media, most of them applauding the move. However, not all are cheering on the leaders.


Is The Liptako-Gourma Charter A New Dawn Beyond the Sahel?

The unveiling of the Liptako-Gourma Charter signifies a transformative moment for the Sahel. Yet, beyond its immediate implications, there’s burgeoning curiosity in the international community: Could this charter set a precedent for the wider African continent? Might this kind of agreement inspire other African leaders to contemplate a continental alliance reminiscent of NATO? Some think it’s the right next direction.


The true measure of the charter’s success, however, will be reflected not just in military or diplomatic achievements, but in the tangible enhancements in the lives of the Sahel’s denizens. Will a farmer be assured of a just return for his efforts? Can a child in an isolated village access quality education? Is the path clear for a young female entrepreneur to expand her venture?

While the Alliance of Sahel States offers a beacon of hope, its realization demands unwavering commitment, absolute transparency, and the active engagement of its people. The foundation for this ambitious endeavor will be laid by grassroots movements, community dialogues, and inclusive governance.


The Liptako-Gourma Charter is more than just a document; it’s a vision for a united, prosperous, and resilient Sahel. As the sun sets over the vast Sahelian landscape, casting long shadows over its dunes and plains, there’s a whisper of change in the air. A change that promises a brighter tomorrow, where the Sahel emerges not as a region of challenges but as a beacon of hope, unity, and endless possibilities.

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